What is NS hosting
Almost all hosting providers offer DNS-servers for free
DNS server (Name Server, nameserver, NS) is a server that converts domain names that users work with into IP addresses that computers can understand, or vice versa.
Usually people don't distinguish between the concepts of NS and DNS servers. What does a name server do? What are child NS servers? What are resource records for a domain? What DNS servers must be specified for a domain?
What is a name server (NS)
The name of a site (domain) is clear to the user, but the computer needs to know the exact numerical address to open the pages. A DNS server (otherwise known as name server, nameserver, NS) is responsible for the conversion on the fly. It translates a domain name into an IP address or vice versa, depending on the task. In any case, without this intermediate link to open the web resource can not.
What functions does name-server perform?
A regular user does not need to know the technical details. NS-servers work in a transparent mode, their role is invisible. After you type the name of the site into your browser address bar and press Enter, the requested page will open "at once". The DNS query will only be visible in the application's log.
Name server functions:
- Convert entered domain into a numeric value and vice versa.
- Generating an error message if the wrong address is entered.
- Providing information about the server where the subdomains reside.
- Caching of entries to speed up access to the sites.
Often the first opening of a new web resource is slow because of the time it takes for the DNS server to respond. Subsequent launches are faster precisely because of the cache with a list of previously requested domains. Technically, "intermediate" nodes are divided into three groups by functionality:
- Primary (Master). It is the primary server that responds to all user requests.
- Secondary (Slave). It stores a copy of information about the primary server so that in case of its unavailability or high load it can answer user requests.
- Caching. Designed to increase the speed of the previous two server options. Also used to reduce load during peak periods.
The website will not open if the DNS server address is incorrect (in hosting) or unavailable, because the browser "won't know" which real IP is the server that is used to host the files of the web resource. If the owner has the ability to make changes to the hosting settings, the user has only to wait for the problem to be resolved.
What is a child NS-server?
According to the The Ultimate Guide to Web Hosting review, almost all hosting providers offer DNS-servers for free. And at least one child (backup) host runs everywhere. The child servers are formed using the "parent" domain, e.g. ns1.timeweb.org, ns2.timeweb.org. This approach makes it possible to host them on the main server (due to this it is provided at no cost).
When setting up NS records on the "native" hosting, where domains were purchased, it is sufficient to enter the names and save the changes. In most cases, these are entered automatically at the time of registration of the site (name). If you have to delegate authority to other users, you will need to add IP addresses. Without them, the online resource identification system will not work.
NS records for domain
The same applies to setting up email and other web services. The provider enters the data automatically or manually in the hosting control panel. The second option is often required when you lease paid DNS-servers. For example, if a company has several websites running at the same time (there are tariffs for up to 150 domains and 12,000 records).
Basic record types:
- NS - basic type, allows you to define the addresses assigned to a domain.
- A - binds a site name to a single IP over IPv4. It is possible to add multiple records with different IP addresses.
- AAAA - is similar to previous entry, but relative to IPv6.
- CNAME - marks domain as linked to another domain as an alias.
- MX - specifies the name of the server responsible for receiving mail for the domain. It is possible to add multiple MX records in one site with different priority.
- TXT - allows you to store arbitrary information; it is used for custom purposes, such as confirming the connection of analytics services.
- SOA - Stores service data such as the last updated date of the domain zone or administrator's address.
The correctness of DNS server addresses affect the performance of the site and its promotion. For example, MX records are used to ensure good reputation when sending emails (e.g., spam less often). TXT records are in demand for the work of system administrators and optimizers who use third-party site monitoring and analysis services.